Uthman ibn Affan (Ghani) Khalifah
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Uthman ibn Affan Khilafah in History of Tabari (Volume 15) - Google Books
Nearly all, if not most of Tabari's Historians have narrated Uthman ibn Affan and his Governors as doing Unjust Actions, who Include:
- Ibn Ishaq (died 761AD) (His grandfather was born before Hijra)
- Abu Mikhnaf (d. 774AD) (His grandfather was participated in Battel of Jamal on Ali's side)
- Waqidi (d. 823AD) (was the one of the passionate teacher of Ibn Sad Baghdadi)
- Ibn Sad Baghdadi (d. 845AD)
- Sayf ibn Umar (d. 796AD)
- Ibn Awn
- Al-Madaini (d. 850AD)
- Mohammad ibn Maslamah (d. 591 - 666AD)(was a Companion of the Prophet (SAAW))
- Zuhri (d. 742AD) (Ibn Ishaq got alot of information from Zuhri)
- Abdullah ibn Muhammadi
- ibn Humayd (One of Tabari''s teachers)
- Jafar and Ali, etc.
- along with other historians :
- History of Yaqoubi (d. 900AD) (History of Yaqoubi wrote a history book before History of Tabari was made)
- Ibn Aathir
- Ansab al-Ashraf (by Baladhuri (d. 892AD)) wrote a history book a bit after History of Tabari was made)
Note : The Prophet (SAAW) birth was born around lived around the 600AD time. So one can find out that these Historians of tabari are Very Early Historians, that some lived during the Prophet (SAAW) time, or One, Two, Three. or Forth Generations after the Prophet (SAAW) passed away.
Ibn Ishaq (reliable historian of the sunni sect, who has narrated alot of the history of the Sira of the Prophet (SAAW) (History and life of the Prophet (SAAW)). A whole movie called, "The Messege", which can be watched in Youtube is derived from Tabari's historians.
Page xiii - General Information about Uthman ibn Affan's Khilafah History:
Page xiv - Tabari's and Uthman ibn Affan Information:
Page 2 - Uthman ibn Affan's Linage:
Page 15 - Narrated by Waqidi: Uthman ibn Affan expanded the Sacred Mosque. But in doing so, some people refused to sell their house, so the Sacred Mosque can replace the land of their houses. Those people who refuse to sell their houses, protested, and Uthman ibn Affan threw them in jail. Abdullah ibn Khalid requested Uthman ibn Affan to take these people out of jail, so Uthman accepted Abdullah's request.
Page 24 - Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As was close relation to Uthman ibn Affan. One of the biggest blames given to Uthman ibn Affan by those who rebeled against him, was that Uthman ibn Affan brought Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As back from exile. Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As, even though a close relative of Uthman ibn Affan, was a big opponent of the Prophet (SAAW) himself. Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As had committed many serious crimes and was considered as a criminal, and so the Prophet (SAAW) exiled him to Taif (close to Mecca). Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As son, Marwan ibn Hakam and his family use to curse Imam Ali (Sahih Muslim hadith 6229). Marwan eventually became the Khilifah some time after the Event of the Battle of Karbala. Though Uthman showed kindness towards Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As, infact he funded Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As with gifts and money, along with his other Bani Ummayah relatives. Uthman ibn Affan was known to favour his relatives, over other people, even if his relatives were unjust.
Page 38 - Some of the Wahabi's consider innovation (bidah) in Islam a extremely wrongful act. Narrated by Waqidi: During the Pilgrimage, Uthman prayed 4 rakat prayer instead of 2 rakat. Some Sahaba's made a complain to Uthman ibn Affan, claiming that the Prophet (SAAW), Abu Bakr, and Umar prayed 2 rakat, yet Uthman ibn Affan prayed 4 rakat. Imam Ali also told him that Prophet (SAAW) use to pray 2 rakat.
Page 39: - This Page is related with Page 38, Narrated by Waqidi: that Uthman ibn Affan prayed 4 rakat instead of 2 rakat, which was originally practised by the Prophet (SAAW). Abdur Rahman ibn Awf also made this Complain to Uthman ibn Affan
Page 42 - Narrated by Umar ibn Shabbah : Sa'id was part of the government party of Uthman ibn Affan. According to the narration on this page, Sa'id promised the people that he would not kill one man. But when they opened the door for him, he killed all the men, except for one man.
Page 158 - Narrated by Sayf ibn Umar: Uthman ibn Affan had divided his wealth amongst his relatives from the Bani Ummayah clan. He gave Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As family (who was the Prophet (SAAW) bitter enemy and a criminal that the Prophet (SAAW) had exiled him to Taif) 10,000 dirhams each, totally to 100,000 dirhams.
Page 159 - Continues from Page 158
Page 165 - Narrated by Sayf ibn Umar: Some people threw stones at Uthman ibn Affan until he felt unconscious from the pulpit (mimbar).
Page 172 - Narrated by Waqidi: Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (Abu Bakr's son and a Shiite Sahaba), and Muhammad ibn Hudhayfah were in Egypt, and they were inciting the Egyption people against Uthman ibn Affan.
Page 182 - Narrated by Waqidi: Uthman ibn Affan as mentioned before, gave money and gifts to Al-Hakam ibn Al-As (who was the Enemy of the Prophet (SAAW) and a criminal whom the Prophet (SAAW) had sent to exile). Also, Jabalah called Uthman ibn Affan a Hyena, and claimed Uthman ibn Affan of doing unjust and criminal acts, such as favouring his relatives and close one, such as Marwan ibn Hakam (whose him and his family use to curse Imam Ali), and Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan (who use to Abuse and critisize Imam Ali and tell his governors to Abuse Imam Ali), Abdullah ibn Amir ibn Kurayz, and Abdullah ibn Sad. Among these men, some were condemned in the Quran, and their blood the Messenger of God (SAAW) has declared lawful.
Page 183 - People informed Uthman ibn Affan that Uthman ibn Affan had incurred great danger, and told Uthman ibn Affan to repent. This time, Jahjah called him a hyena, as mentioned before that Jabala called him a hyena.
Page 186 to 189 - Narrated ibn Ishaq : 600 Egyptions marched on to Uthman ibn Affan. One of the Sahaba's (Companions of the Prophet (SAAW)) wrote a letter to Uthman quoting from the Quran, saying "God Changes not what is in a people, until they change what is in themselves (Quran Verse 13:12). People and the Sahaba's claimed, that they were angered for the Sake of God telling Uthman ibn Affan to stop his Unjust Actions, and repent, and that they would put their swords down until Uthman ibn Affan stops his unjust actions." After this letter from the Egyptions, the people of Medina wrote to Uthman ibn Affan as well, telling Uthman ibn Affan to repent, and the Medina people swore by God, that if Uthman ibn Affan doesn't stop his injustice and repent, they would kill him. Uthman ibn Affan consulted Ali ibn Abi Talib, and said, "I promised them (Sahaba's and other people) before that I will stop my unjustness, but my promise was empty (not fulfilled)." Ali ibn Abi Talib said to Uthman ibn Affan, "the people desire justice more than your death." Ali ibn Abi Talib went to the people, and claimed Uthman ibn Affan would do justice, and Uthman demanded 3 days, thus the people turned back. In those 3 days, Uthman ibn Affan did the opposite what he promised the people, and he started preparing for War against the people and the Sahaba's. Uthman ibn Affan formed a strong army. When 3 days had passed, and saw that Uthman ibn Affan did not fulfill his promise again, the people revolted against Uthman ibn Affan. The people said to Uthman ibn Affan, "did we not leave you (3 days before), so that you would repent and stop your Unlawful Innovations (Bidah)." Then the people claimed, "You have written this letter that we found from your servant." Uthman ibn Affan responded, "I did not write this letter." The people said to Uthman ibn Affan, "you must do either what we promised, or be killed." Uthman ibn Affan said, "I would not step down." So the people beseiged Uthman ibn Affan for 40 nights.
Page 190 and 191 - Narrated by Ibn Awn and other Historians: Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (the son of the first Caliph, Abu Bakr), but was known to be a Shiite Sahaba, came with 13 men to attack Uthman ibn Affan. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr seized Uthman ibn Affan's beard and shook it. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr said to Uthman ibn Affan, neither Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan, nor Ibn Amir was a help to you. Uthman ibn Affan replied, let go of my beard, son of my brother, then Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr gave the signal to his other men to attack and kill Uthman ibn Affan. Malik Ashtar, also a Shiite Sahaba was an opponent of Sa'id (Uthman ibn Affan governor). Malik Ashtar was known for his big support of Imam Ali. Malik Ashtar fought in Battle of Sifeen on Imam Ali's side. Imam Ali favoured Malik Ashtar very much, and when Muawiya killed Malik Ashtar by paying someone to poison Malik Ashtar, Muawiya was delighted and claimed "I have destroyed Imam Ali's 2 big commanders (One being Malik Ashtar and the other, Ammar Yassir who was killed by Muawiya's and his men in the battle of Sifeen. A Famous report in Tarikh Tabari and Sahih hadith Thirmidhi Hadith: 3800, That the Prophet (SAAW) said, 'the trasgression (unjust) party shall kill Ammar Yassir')". This is how important Malik Ashtar was to Imam Ali and his army.
Page 192 and 193 - Narrated by Waqidi and Muhammad ibn Maslamah: People complained that they found a letter from Uthman ibn Affan's slave, that said, "If Abd al-Rahman ibn Udays comes to you, give him 100 slashes, and shave off his head and beard. Do the same with Amr ibn Hamiq, Sudan ibn Humran, and Urwah ibn al-Niba al-Laythi". Other people asked, "how do you know Uthman ibn Affan wrote this letter". They responsed, supposed Marwan wrote this letter without Uthman's being aware about it, then that is worse, and he must remove himself from the office (government position). They asked Imam Ali to address this issue with Uthman ibn Affan. Imam Ali claimed to Uthman ibn Affan that the Egyptions are complaining against you, but Uthman ibn Affan denied that he wrote the letter.
Page 202 - Narrated by ibn Ishaq: Marwan ibn Hakam (who him and his family use to curse Imam Ali) fought against the people who were trying to attack Uthman ibn Affan. The Egyptions were against Said (who was one of the Governors of Uthman ibn Affan)
Page 203 - Narrated by Jafar ibn Abdullah al-Muhammadi: The people wanted Uthman ibn Affan to abandon his Khilafah, but Uthman ibn Affan insisted on retaining his office.
Page 246 - Narrated by Abdullah ibn Muhammadi: The people did not allow Uthman ibn Affan to be buried in a Muslim Cemetary, and Uthman ibn Affan's body was thrown aside and left unburied for 3 days. Uthman ibn Affan was eventually buried in a Jewish Cemetary, as that is the only place the people in Medina at that time allowed Uthman ibn Affan to be buried.
Page 247 - Narrated by Jafar and Ali: that some of Uthman's daughters wailed in mourning for Uthman ibn Affan's death, and raised their voices. The people took stones, and houted, "Long beared old idiot (Also known as Nathal which they refered to Uthman ibn Affan)", where her daughter was nearly stoned.