History of Karbala - Yazid ibn Muawiya's Khilafah
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The Caliphate of Yazīd b. Muʻāwiya
History of Tabari - Karbala
Preface - Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (839AD - 923AD) wrote a History Book, called, History of Tabari. IT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT UNIVERSAL HISTORY PRODUCED IN THE WORLD OF ISLAM.
Translator Foreword - Two earlier Historians, Dinawari (died 282AH / 895AD) and History pf Yaqoubi (died 292AH / 905AD), have given accounts of the Event of Karbala. One not so far later Historian called, Baladhuri (died 279AH / 892AD) in his Historian Book, Ansab al-ashraf, has also given accounts of the History of Karbala.
Page 2 - Narrated by Hisham ibn Kalbi and Abu Mikhnaf: Yazid ibn Muawiya became the Khilafah in the year 60 (April 8, 680AD). Yazid ibn Muawiya's ONLY concern was to receive the Bayyah (Pledge of Allegience) from Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn Zubayr and Imam Hussain ibn Ali. Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan had summoned his son, Yazid ibn Muawiya to be his Heir (Successor) (Just like the Prophet (SAAW) had summoned his brother and cousin, Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib to be his Heir (Successor)).
Reference History of Tabari, Volume 6, Muhammad at Mecca, Page 91 and 92:
Page 3 - Narrated by Hisham ibn Kalbi: Marwan ibn Hakam (who use to curse Imam Ali - Sahih Muslim, Book 031, Number 5924) did not have good relations with Walid., but after Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan's death, Marwan ibn Hakam advised to for Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn Zubayr and Imam Hussain ibn Ali summon the Bayyah (Pledge of Allegience) to Yazid ibn Muawiya as soon as possible, and if they refuse, then Execute them. Also, Marwan ibn Hakam was a member of the Bani Ummayah, and his father, Hakam ibn al-As was a enemy of the Prophet (SAAW) and a criminal, that the Prophet (SAAW) has expelled Hakam ibn al-As from Medina (but, during Uthman ibn Affan's Khilafah, Uthman ibn Affan invited him back from Exile and favoured Hakam ibn al-As. Please see Page 24, 158, 182 or Uthman ibn Affan's Khilafah).
Page 4 - Narrated by Hisham ibn Kalbi: Abdullah ibn Zubayr and Imam Hussain ibn Ali, had a conversation, and they thought Walid had sent for them for the Bayyah of Yazid ibn Muawiya.
Page 5 - Narrated by Hisham ibn Kalbi: Marwan ibn Hakam said to Walid, to hold Imam Hussain ibn Ali back, and render to Bayyah. At that Imam Hussain ibn Ali called Marwan and liar and a sunnier. Walid refused to kill Imam Hussain ibn Ali saying, "should I kill Hussain ibn Ali just because he Hussain ibn Ali said, 'I will not give the pledge of allegience'".
Page 6 - Narrated by Hisham Ibn Kalbi: Some of Walid's men harrassed Imam Hussain ibn Ali. Jafar ibn Zubayr went to Walid, and said, "You have terried and terrorized Hussain ibn Ali."
Page 10 - Narrated by Waqidi: Imam Hussain ibn Ali refused to give the Bayyah (Pledge of Allegience) to Yazid ibn Muawiya.
Page 20 - Narrated by Amr ibn Ali: Umarah narrated a Hadith of the Prophet (SAAW), a man whose father was an unbeliever (kafir), was brought to the Apostle of God (SAAW), who orded that man to be Executed. The man pleaded, "Muhammad, who will there be for the children?" He answered, "Hell Fire." One of those children was Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad.
Narrated by Imam Mohammad al-Baqir (5th Imam of the Shiite, and the grandson of Imam Hussain ibn Ali, and Great, Great Grandson of the Prophet (SAAW)): 4,000 Kufans gathered with Muslim ibn Aqil (who was the cousin of Imam Hussain ibn Ali, and the son, of Aqil ibn Abu Talib)
Page 24 - Narrated by Abu Mikhnaf: Salayman ibn Surad, Musayyab ibn Najabah, Rifa'ah ibn Shaddad, Habib ibn Muzahir and the Shia's, wrote letters to Imam Hussain ibn Ali that they have no Imam over them, so come to Kufa.
- Salayman ibn Surad was Sahaba (Companion of the Prophet (SAAW)). He was later on a leader of the Shia of Kufa. Sulayman ibn Surad has narrated a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 74 and Sahih Muslim, Book 32, Number 6316
- Musayyab ibn Najabah was a leading Shiite of Kufa
- Rifa'ah ibn Shaddad was a long standing Shiite of Kufa
- Habib ibn Muzahir was a leading Shiite of Kufa. Habib ibn Muzahir went to Karbala to join with Imam Hussain ibn Ali's army, and he fought and died in Karbala.
Page 26 - Narrated by Abu Mikhnaf: Imam Hussain read the letters of Kufa, which stated, "There is no Imam over us. Come, God may unite us in guidance and truth through you." So Imam Hussain ibn Ali, send his brother and cousin, Muslim ibn Aqil to see the situation in Kufa, and if everything is good, Imam Hussain ibn Ali will come to Kufa in a hurry. Imam Hussain said, "what is the Imam except one who acts according to the Book (Quran), one who upholds justice, one who professes the truth, and one who dedicates himself to God."
Page 28 - Narrated by Abu Mikhnaf: Muslim ibn Aqil went to Kufa. He stayed in Mukhtar's house. The Shiite began to come regulary to visit Muslim ibn Aqil.
- Mukhtar was a Shiite, who after the event of Karbala, started a uprise with other Shiite, and they killed those poeple who killed, Imam Hussain and his followers in Karbala. See
History of Tabari, Volume 21, Victory of the Marwanids
Page 29 - Narrated by Hajjaj ibn Ali: (Similar to Page 28) The Shiite began to visit Muslim ibn Aqil frequently.
- Abid ibn Abi Shabib was a leader of the Shia of Kufa, and he was part of Imam Hussain ibn Ali's army, and he fought for Imam Hussain ibn Ali, and he died in Karbala.
Page 30 - Narrated by Abu Mikhnaf: Nu'man, was the governor of Kufa, but was considered a weak governor in the eyes of the Ummayah, as he did not want to fight or restrict, or oppose the residence of Kufa in any way, unlike the future Kufa governor, Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad, who opposed anyone who opposed him. Abdullah ibn Muslim was supporter of the Ummayah, and wrote to Yazid saying Nu'man is a weak man, and the Shia of Kufa have given the Bayyah (Pledge of Allegience) to Muslim ibn Aqil on behalf of Imam Hussain ibn Ali. Yazid ibn Muawiya had a adviser named Surjan, who said to Yazid ibn Muawiya, "send Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad to Kufa as governor (as Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad was the governor of Basra at that time). This would of been the advise of your father, Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan."
Page 31 - Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad was given orders to go to Kufa, and to chiar, kill or expel Muslim ibn Aqil if anyone finds him.
Page 32 - Narrated by Hisham ibn Kalbi: Imam Hussain ibn ali wrote a letter, saying: "God gave preference to Muhammad (SAAW) to all his creatures, and graced him (SAAW) with Prophethood. WE ARE HIS FAMILY, AND THOSE WHO POSSES AUTHORITY, AND THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN MADE TRUSTEES AND HIS (SAAW) INHERITORS. WE HAVE MORE RIGHT TO HIS (SAAW) POSITION (MEANING KHILAFAH) THEN ANYONE ELSE. OUR PEOPLE SELFISHLY CLAIMED OUR EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO THAT. YET WE CONSENTED AND HATED DISUNITY. HOWEVER, WE HAVE A GREATER CLAIM TO THE RIGHT (OF KHILAFAH) THEN THOSE WHO HAVE SEIZED IT. INDEED THE SUNNAH (WAY OF THE PROPHET (SAAW)) HAS BEEN KILLED. AND INNOVATION (WRONG SINFULL CORRUPTION ACTIONS) HAS BEEN GIVEN LIFE.
This is similar Hadith to what Imam Hassan ibn Ali said during his time that, "PEOPLE HAVE INDULGE IN KILLING AND CORUPPTION (Meaning Abandoning the Sunnah)".
Reference: Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 49, Number 867:
Page 36 - Narrated by Umar ibn Shabbah: When Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad came to Kufa, people thought at first, that he was Imam Hussain ibn Ali, as the Kufa people were waiting, and expecting for Imam Hussain ibn Ali. Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad said, "those who marched with me, and showed obedience to me, are enemies of Hussain ibn Ali"
Page 38 - Narrated by Umar ibn Shabbah: Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad threatened Hani ibn Urwa, saying to him, "Didn't my father not spare anyone of this Shia except for your father and Hujr ibn Adi, and you know what happened to Hujr." Ubaidullah them broke Hani ibn Urwa's nose.
Also, see footnote, Hujr ibn Adi was a Shiite Companion of Ali. Hujr ibn Adi was killed because he refused to Curse Imam Ali, and Hujr ibn Adi condemned Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan and his governors of Kufa for Cursing and Abusing Imam Ali.
History of Tabari, Volume 18, The Caliphate of Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan, Page 122
Page 39 - Narrated by Hisham ibn Kalbi: Sharik was a member of the Shiites, and had been presented in the Battle of Sifeen with Ammar ibn Yassir.
Also, see footnote, Ammr ibn Yassir was a Sahaba (Companion of the Prophet (SAAW)), and Supporter of Ali (Shiite). Also, the Famous Hadith in Thirmidhi that Ammar ibn Yassir will be killed by the Transgressing Party (Muawiya and his followers)
Thirmidhi, Hadith 3800
Google Books - Page 39
Page 41 - Narrated by Hisham ibn Kalbi: Hani ibn Urwa had the chance to kill Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad, but he refused for two reasons. (1)Hani ibn Urwa disliked for Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad to be killed in Hani ibn Urwa's home, and (2) That the Prophet (SAAW) said, "Faith controls killing and a believer should not commit murder."
Page 42 - Narrated by Hisham ibn Kalbi: Muslim ibn Aqil use to send his money to Abu Thumamah al-Saidi.
- Abu Thumamah al-Saidi was a Shiite of Kufa, and he joined Imam Hussain ibn Ali's army, and fought and died in Karbala. (see footnote)
Page 47 - Narrated by Abu Mikhnaf: Hani ibn Urwa informed the people to hold fast and obedient to God and to their Imams.
Page 53 - Narrated by Abu Mikhnaf : Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad claimed Muslim ibn Aqil has attempted an opposition and rebellion to Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad.
Page 57 - Narrated by Abu Mikhnaf: when Muslim ibn Aqil was in Hani ibn Urwa's house, 18,000 people gave the Bayyah (Pledge of Allegience) to Muslim ibn Aqil.
Page 60 - Narrated by Abu Mikhnaf: Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad said to Muslim ibn Aqil, "that he would kill him in such a way that no one had been killed in Islam before". Muslim ibn Aqil replied to Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad, "You are the person with the most right to commit crimes of innovation in Islam. You will never abandon evil murder, wicked punishment, shameful pratuce, and avaricious domination." Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad cursed Hussain ibn Ali, Ali ibn Abu Talib, and Aqil ibn Abu Talib.
Also, Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad, also known as Ibn Summayyah (son of Summayyah), his mother, Summayyah, was a prostitute. His father Ziyad, had joined Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan as Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan had some relation with Ziyad,
Ziarat Video of our Sunni brothers visiting the Graves of Muslim ibn Aqeel and (Urdu / Hindi):
Page 61 - Narrated by Abu Mikhaf: Bukayr ibn Humran killed Muslim ibn Aqil.
Page 63 - Narrated by Abdullah ibn al-Zabir al-Asadi: Praised poem for Muslim ibn Aqil, and the Shiite Companion, Hani ibn Urwa.
Page 71 - Narrated by Hisham ibn Kalbi: Hussain ibn Ali was in hurry to leave the Pilgrimage (of Kaaba), because he was worried he might get apprehended (arrested). Hussain ibn Ali asked a man from Iraq, "Tell me about the people you have left behind you?" He answered, "Their hearts are with you, but their swords are with the Bani Ummayah. The decision is in the hand of God"
Ziarat Video of our Sunni brothers visiting the Shohadah (Martyr's) of
Karbala (Urdu / Hindi):
the opponents shot an arrow at Imam Hussain
Page 81 - Narrated by Hussain ibn Abd Rahamn: Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad took the head of Imam Hussain, and started poking it with his cane, commenting negavtive things about Imam Hussain. This Narration is similar to a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari:
Historians narration of when Imam Hussain was martyred
The first head raised on wood was the head of Imam Hussain
Qays ibn Mushir, Imam Hussain's messenger was told to curse Imam Hussain and his father, but he refused, and instead said, "Imam Hussain is the best of God's creatures." Qays ibn Mushir was the killed by Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad and smashed into pieces.
One of the those who gave their life to Imam Hussain siding with him in the battle of Karbala, Zuhayr ibn Qayn (may God be pleased with him), converted to Shia when he met Imam Hussain, and was a very loyal supporter of Imam Hussain after he met Imam Husssain.
Imam Hussain spend the whole night praying, also Burayr ibn Hudayr (one of the leading Shia of Kufa) was present at that time as well.
Imam Hussain put Habib ibn Muzahir (who was one of the Shia of Kufa) and Zuhayr ibn Qayn (who was a converted Shia) as part of his left wing and right wing for his small army in the Battle of Karbala.
Muslim ibn Awsajah (one of the Shiites who sided with Imam Hussain ) offered to shoot an arrow to Shimar ibn Jawshan, but Imam Hussain told Muslim ibn Awsajah not to shoot the arrow, and Imam Hussain was not willing to start the battle.
Imam Hussain's thirst became very extreme, and the opponents shot an arrow at Imam Hussain's throat,
making Imam Hussain's throat gush out blood.
The opponents also tried to prevent Imam Hussain and his Shia's from getting water from the Euphrates River.
Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad had called Imam Hussain and his Shia's liars:
Names mentioned of those that was killed with Imam Hussain, his family and his Shia.